BCM240 Reflection


I’m a notoriously harsh marker. Despite the fact that I’m not in any sort of authority position to mark anything, I’ve always enjoyed giving experiences, events, food and even friendships a quantified assessment (Dan, you’re a solid 86%).

There’s been a whole lot of BCM240 these past 10 or so weeks. There’s been plenty of theories, concepts, yelling, heated discussion and, for better or worse, many, many blogs. Now here I am, after ten or so weeks of ‘Media, Audience & Place’, reflecting on the whole process and what I have produced during the course. In keeping with my love of harsh marking, I’ll try to keep it as critical as possible.

First up, I’ve got to watch my speling more. Also, I tend to make way too many really bad jokes. Humour, as it should be obvious by now, is one of the constant themes in my BCM240 blog posts. Writing these blogs, I’ve tried to keep the mood light and the content humorous wherever possible while also attempting to impart or demonstrate a serious and in-depth knowledge of the course content matter. This isn’t an easy task and, if we’re to really assess this attempt, I’d say that the result is uncomfortable oscillation. Blog posts deviate wildly between an overly-obvious attempt to outline a concept and irreverent humour and this juxtaposition has the tendency to undercut both the insight and the humour that I am trying to present. Fruit is great on it’s own and so is cake, but no one likes fruit cake. Combining the two brings out the worst in both.

Why then do I keep making jokes? I’m realistic about the content of this course, and I’m especially realistic about the audience that these blog posts would attract. The course content is relatively abstract and unlikely to attract the attention of the general public. Instead those most likely to read these posts are fellow students of BCM240. To simply rehash the content of the week, even with my own twist, is unlikely to appeal to those already doing the readings, watching the lectures and taking the tutes on the same content. So, at least in my humble opinion, my best option for attracting and retaining readership is to make the posts entertaining.

Keeping readers is pretty irrelevant though if you don’t have any readers. Promotion, then, has to be pretty dang important. For the most part, promoting my blog took place outside of wordpress. Though I would of course carry the BCM240, UOW, BCM and media tags by default, most of my blog promotion and redirects were done on other social medias like Facebook and twitter. Whereas facebook was used more to coerce/pressure pre-existing networks (friends) to read, I used twitter to reach out to the BCM and BCM240 communities. Specifically, #bcm240 was especially useful and accounted for the majority of my twitter redirects. When promoting my blog or a specific post on twitter I would try to use the tips outlined in this article, such as quotes from the post or a question relating to the topic but these turned out to be the least effective tweets. Instead, tweets that featured an irreverent or humorous comment followed by a brief allusion or a simple suggestion to read the post as well as a link seemed to work the best. This is best exemplified by the tweet bellow:


This tweet was by far my most successful in the hours after publishing it I had 23 uniques on this blog post that had been redirected from twitter. It is worth noting that this tweet was published on the 3rd of October, just a day before the due date for this assessment, when the BCM240 hashtag was noticeably busier than ever before. It is very possible that the effectiveness of this tweet has nothing to do with the content or the format of the tweet itself, but rather that the greater redirect rate is simply a product of greater traffic on the hashtag.

Moving on, the class content, concepts and ideas discussed in the posts. I believe that I have adequately interacted with the concepts discussed in BCM240. The forever changing relationship between media, audiences and spaces was, at least in principle, an interesting one to discuss. I feel I have interacted with the core of these concepts well, but I’m not convinced that I have added anything new or significant to the conversation. Of course, it might seem a little outrageous for me to assume that I’d be able to shape or influence such academic and difficult concepts, but I’m still a little disappointed I wasn’t able to contribute to the research or theory of the topic in any significant way.

The feedback from part 1 was mostly positive but there was a fair warning about watching my grammar and punctuation. Though I’m reasonably confident in my writing style, I will admit that I have trouble in my editing. I’ve taken to a stricter edit and review process. Essentially, I simply reread everything twice and draft my friends into editing the longer pieces as well.

Overall, I have enjoyed the blogging aspect of BCM240. At first, the word counts required seemed a little long, but as the course and the topics expanded, the longer word counts for the posts encouraged me to explore the concepts more than I would have without it. Rather than simply meeting a smaller word count with a recital of the topic, I found myself using the blog posts to understand or expand upon the more complex aspects of a weeks topic. I’m happy with the way my BCM240 blog has grown, and I hope that you’ve enjoyed reading it.


Week 9: Re-Regulation

There’s two ways to approach this weeks topic. There’s the obvious one, talking about media regulations, legislation and restriction in a simple, rational sense and recounting how this dictates certain aspects of the media/space relationship; then there’s the weirder one where I ramble on about the philosophical and metaphysical implications of media restriction, the shifting relationship between media and mechanisms of control as media ceases to necessitate a physical form.

The word counts for this subject are weirdly long though, so I’m just gonna do both.

Attempt 1.gif

First, as old mate Gambino suggests in the .gif above, let’s talk about what is probably the most personally interesting development in the regulation of Australian media of late, the site-blocking potential of Copyright Amendment (Online Infringement) Act 2015 and the general cock up that was the Dallas Buyers Club (DBC) debacle. So, first up, the federal government pushed through an amendment to the 1968 Copyright act last year that would allow copyright holders (media companies like Time Warner, Village Roadshow, EMI, etc) to request that sites hosting or enabling the unlicensed distribution of copyrighted material be blocked. Specifically the Copyright Amendment (Online Infringement) Act 2015 states that …

“the Federal Court of Australia may, on application by the owner of a copyright, grant an injunction referred to in subsection (2) if the Court is satisfied that:

                     (a)  a carriage service provider provides access to an online location outside Australia; and

                     (b)  the online location infringes, or facilitates an infringement of, the copyright; and

                     (c)  the primary purpose of the online location is to infringe, or to facilitate the infringement of, copyright (whether or not in Australia).”

Home made gifs and a legit legislation in one blog post. What will they think of next.

The DBC debacle basically involved DBC LLC lawyers attempting to legally get an ISP, specifically iiNet, to give up the names of the 4726 iiNet customers that illegally downloaded the film (Shepard, 2016). They failed and it was all pretty embarrassing.

So, there’s that. A real life example of someone trying to prevent me from accessing media. Not that I would pirate. The problem now is relating this to space, because this all exists in the ethereal. As much as I would love to quote Hagerstrand and the obvious capability and coupling constraints, all I’m left to discuss is the obvious authoritative constraint. An authority, specifically the government, has declared that I should not be able to access something in a particular space, that being the intrinsically intangible cyber space. It’s worth mentioning though that it’s, literally, the easiest thing in the world to bypass. Moving on…

This leads up to the great philosophical section of the discussion. As the split between media and physical space grows, those that previously regulated media have been caught trying to dominate the immaterial nature of modern media with a philosophy tied to physical media. Whereas in the past, to steal a movie meant to physically deprive someone else of their copy, the digitization of media allows for effectively limitless recreation without deprivation.As the media has outgrown the physical necessity,  legal regulators failed to understand the shift to the digital and still carry on like video piracy is theft. When it’s only, like, sorta theft.

And this, dear reader, is when we come to the crux of not only the topic, but this class. Media is no longer restricted to the cinema or the living room. Moreover, where once media would interact with the physical space and the humans within it, the internet has switched this and allowed for the creation of an intangible, ethereal media space that we interact with. Coming to grips with the new digital age is not simply a matter of understanding that movies aren’t on DVDs, but rather the very concept of space has forever changed.

I don’t know if that makes sense to you, but I was doing this whole Beautiful Mind thing so it sorta makes sense to me.


Campbell, S 2016, ‘Village Roadshow Using New Laws To Block Australian Pirate Sites’, Gizmodo, 18 February, viewed 1/10/16 http://www.gizmodo.com.au/2016/02/village-roadshow-goes-to-australian-court-to-block-solarmovie-piracy-website/

Copyright Amendment (Online Infringement) Act 2015

Shepard, F 2016, ‘The Dallas Buyers Club case has been abandoned but illegal downloaders may still face trouble’, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 12 February, viewed 1/10/16 http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-02-12/dallas-buyers-club-case-abandoned-illegal-dowloads-pirate/7162180


Week 8: Media & Space/Bourbon & Coke

I’m not a big fan of putting my phone down. Imagine, then, the shock and horror I felt when the suggested activity of the week was to design an informal study of my friends to determine how long it would take them to look at or be ‘distracted’ by their phones.

Never the less, I undertook this gargantuan task in the simplest, most agreeable way possible. With drinks.

Conducting this research, very academically, coincided with a social even I had planned. Nothing too fancy, just a few drinks with some old friends. During that time, I kept a tally based on my observations of how often my friends would briefly look at their phones, say to check the time or for notifications, and a separate tally for what I considered a more in depth interaction. It’s worth noting that I was keeping these tallies, of course, on my phone.

Things kicked off around 2030 (24 hour time makes any study seem more legitimate), and by 2130 all 16 of my guests had had both brief glances and full on interactions with their phones at least once. By 2230, I had a recorded 31 brief interactions and 48 extended interactions. Nice and scientific, right?

Well, I ended the study around 1030. Though I didn’t keep a detailed record of the types of interactions beyond my two general categories, anecdotally people having extended interactions with with their phones seemed to be doing one of two things almost exclusively. Primarily, they were squabbling over which song we should listen to next, showing a pre-loaded song on their phone like it was official identification. Secondly, my attendees were either showing other people a photo or taking a photo with each other. Happy snaps from a trip away, new apartments, pics of pets and somewhat tipsy selfies abounded. Not to say that it didn’t happen, but I certainly didn’t witness anyone using their phone for communication or direct, solo entertainment.

Now, onto the spatial relations. Just as the growth of media has redefined our interactions with general space, I believe that media has redefined our interactions with social space specifically. Not necessarily in simply a ‘dang kids on their dang phones’  sort of way, but actually in a positive way. Just as I believe that media allows for a greater quality of life in general (I use that to justify how little I go outside), I believe that the media-social interactions I observed lead to a better quality of social-life. While what I observed was hardly new (people have squabbled over vinyl records and having slide nights for generations), I believe that the connectivity, speed and depth of these interactions has grown significantly since the popularisation of the smart phone, which I consider to be the most socially influential form of modern tech.

Roughly 38% of our daily media interactions take place via a smartphone (Google, 2012), though I’m sure that number would be significantly higher were it updated. Moreover, the mobility, ubiquity and casual nature of a smart phone makes it immediately accessible in most social scenarios. Therefore, at least in my humble opinion, it’s the most important form of screen in regard to social effect. In my casual study and my larger, anecdotal experience, I have always found smart phones to be a multiplier of social interaction. Just like at my party, the smart phone became a way not only to channel media direct from a users phone to a users face, but to a larger space. That rhymed.

At the party people were able to propagate the shared space with media that would enhance the social experience of everyone there. Rarely, almost never, would someone sit alone in a corner silently, like some would believe. Instead people used larger broadcasts, media exchanges and the physical passing of a phone to create a far greater social experience than would be possible without it.

Then again, as the title suggests, I might have been drinking and there’s totally more legitimate studies out there that suggest social interactions are negatively effected only by the presence of a smart phone. Przybylski & Weinstein (2012, p. 244) as a part of an actual study found that “the mere presence of mobile phones inhibited the development of interpersonal closeness and trust”.

But what would those nerds know.



Google 2012, The New Multi-Screen World – Understanding Consumer Behaviour, Google, viewed 25/9/2016 https://ssl.gstatic.com/think/docs/the-new-multi-screen-world-study_research-studies.pdf

Przybylski, AK & Weinstein, N 2012, ‘Can you connect with me now? How the presence of mobile communication technology influences face-to-face conversation quality’, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,  vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 237 – 246  http://spr.sagepub.com/content/30/3/237.full.pdf+html


Week 6: Taking Photos of Strangers…

… Hopefully, this time around, taking photos of strangers will get me an HD rather than a criminal charge. Moving on.


This weeks task wasn’t super difficult but, second only to going to a cinema, was probably the most awkward. Lucky for me, I managed to capture not only the quintessential uni study environment, but the study of my BCM240 peers. With our camaraderie and shared experience of photographing strangers, requesting a photo of these two subjects with their devices went down pretty well. I asked, they allowed. Indeed, they had done the same only recently for the same task. Does this count as cheating? I’mma say no.

To be fully official, I followed my own pretty standard operating procedure for photographing strangers. I approached the two and addressed them at the same time. I asked if I could take the photo, then I explained why I wanted to. Finally, I explained what the photo would be used for and how it would be published. Luckily, none of these necessitated any significant trial or unnecessary difficulty for the subjects, either in the capturing of the image or it’s propagation. I’m sure they would have had a few more qualms if I was planning to put it on a billboard, but with a promise to only publish the image on my blog, the subjects completely consented.

I have taken photos of strangers before, and my process for doing so is generally similar to that above. It’s basic, but it’s effective. As long as I’m honest, relatively blunt but not aggressive, then consent is almost always given. That said, I’m not sure how easy it would be to get consent if I represented a larger media organisation that, through a larger media presence, posed a greater chance of large scale propagation of the image. For example, perhaps they would have been less cooperative had I represented a major new network and I was looking for stock imagery of students for weekly bulletins.

Interestingly, almost everyone that I’ve spoken to about gaining consent for photographs has a very similar process. This is interesting because, at least in Australia and NSW, there is very little legal need to. Providing that the photograph is taken in a public area and does not divulge any personal information or cause any undue defamation (Arts Law Centre of Australia 2016, p.2), media entities have almost free reign of those presented in public.

Now, where this gets difficult is when a photo is taken on private property, wherein the property owner has the right to declare at their whim photography policy. For example, the Uni has an interesting policy page for photography in the library. Among other things, the policy stipulates that for any and all commercial photography or film, the producers must have written consent from both the university and anyone filmed before that footage or image is used. Moreover, the University reserves the right to withdraw consent at any time (University of Wollongong 2013, n.p). This, as you can imagine, can make it a little difficult to stay within the lines of policy, common law and, above all, general politeness and civility.

Onto the other matter for the week, screens in public. I asked my subjects if I could get a photo of what was on their phones but they seemed understandably reluctant and turned me down. I would argue that, at least for the majority of students and people who were brought up in the screen age, we keep our online personas close to our chest. Beyond the relatively well regulated and presented facebook page or twitter, we protect our DMs and text chats. The social implications of this aren’t lost on me. The obvious one being that as well as the public digital presence, there is the private. Just because we present a large majority of ourselves online with relative transparency, there is just as much background politics and bitching as there has always been and, of course, we’re protective of this. Most interestingly (but this is just anecdotal ramblings by this stage), we are more protective of our data for the small scale, or micro implications of this. Ask anyone who they’re more worried about reading their texts, their best friends or Snowden and the Australia Signals Directorate, and I’d bet nine out of ten of them are more worried about the friends.


Arts Law Centre of Australia 2016, Street Photographer’s Rights, Arts Law Centre of Australia, viewed 20/9/2016 http://www.artslaw.com.au/images/uploads/Street_photographers_rights_2016.pdf

University of Wollongong 2013, Guidelines for photography and filming in the Library, University of Wollongong, viewed 20/9/2016 http://www.library.uow.edu.au/facilities/UOW044637.html 


Week 3: Sex, Drugs and Ethnography

drugs hunter s thompson

The cohorts efforts in the ‘memory research’ assignment have yielded a plethora of insightful, entertaining and awkward parent conversations. Countless BCM240 students have taken the plunge and sat down with their parents to discuss the influences that TV had on their social dynamics as it was slowly introduced. Now you’re all caught up, let’s dive in.

A majority of pieces that I read focused on the expansive, almost inclusive effects that television had on social units. Rather than being the death of society, the ultimate degenerator that our parents warned us about as children, the majority of elders reflected on television positively. Almost all blogs that I read mentioned a fondness for the television and the role it took in the home. Rather than dividing and reducing the unit, elders described the television as a binding force. Units would come together, especially in the day of fixed or live broadcasting, to watch a program. Instead of being a simple media item to consume, the program would be a spectacle or activity enjoyed simultaneously by the whole family – a collaborative media performance producing common experiences.

This was not alone as a common factor. Recollections of sitting on the floor to make space for adults, kids not being allowed to watch any TV without the watchful and wary supervision of an adult and countless other commonalities perviate the BCM240 blogs. After the surprisingly positive effects of television, the second most important common trait was the evolving role of the news. Set amidst such historically significant events as the Vietnam war, the space race and the larger Cold War, news became a messenger delivering incredible, amazing and terrifying bulletins straight to the living rooms of people everywhere – even in living colour, as technology advanced.

The Moon Landing, JFK assassination and footage of the Vietnam war all feature in recollections of past broadcasts. Compared to these, frequently, lies on of the most disturbing and instantaneously televised events of modern history, the terror attacks of 9/11.

Research projects like these are incredibly valuable. More than a simple recording of an oral history, projects like these allow for a form of ethnographic advance. As well as allowing the transfer of simple data, ethnographic exchange allows for the recording and propagation of emotional impressions and effects. When this flourishes ethnography becomes a collaborative effort. Either to simply enhance communication or to address and solve a problem, collaborative ethnography emerges to involve not just the researcher trying to understand the subject, but to also feature the studied understanding the researcher. The exchange fosters, in the ideal example, mutual benefit.

In class we have covered a fair deal of this, but I promised sex and drugs, so I’m going to talk briefly about a practical application of ethnography.

After researching and writing about the Hells Angels motorcycle ‘gang’ in 1965, Hunter S. Thompson spent over a year in close proximity with the club. Though functioning at the time as a journalist, eventually Thompson would publish a book on his time with the club in an ethnographic fashion. The book, “Hells Angels: A Strange and Terrible Saga”, would later be described by social and cultural geographer Bradley Garret as one of the top five most influential ethnographic works.

If you haven’t heard of Thompson, no description I could give would adequately explain the personified madness. You should research that yourself. The entire Hells Angel book is available online for free, here. I’d strongly recommend reading it drunk, but reading it sober will do in a pinch.

Through a mutual exchange with the gang, Thompson was able to somewhat explain their violent and anomalous behavior “from the inside out” (Garret, 2015). As well, in exchange for the study of their behavior, members of the gang were able to explain and defend their lifestyle and actions. The ethnographic exchange proved incredibly effective, leading to a greater academic and social understanding of the emerging trends of social deviance and criminality. As a result, the book is held in wide regard within both social geography and literary circles.

Of course, the study concludes with Thompson being attacked and beaten by dozens of members of the gang, what they coined as “stomping”.

I guess what I’m saying is that ethnography can be an incredibly effective tool in the exploration of other cultures and people, but some bikers will probably beat you up. I’m surprised that didn’t come up in our classes attempts at memory research, actually.



Garret, B 2015, ‘Why gonzo journalism is crucial to our understanding of cities and their tribes’, The Guardian, 20th May  < https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/may/20/gonzo-journalism-cities-tribes-ethnographer-hunter-s-thompson >

Lassiter, LE 2005, The Chicago Guide To Collaborative Ethnography, University of Chicago Press, Chicago

Week 4: Ultrahouse 3000

Okay, so maybe it’s not quite that advanced, but the networked home is advancing and with the eventual mass implementation of the internet of things, we might actually be facing the emergence of the fully online, fully automated house sometime within our lifetime. Before that, though, we will face the networked home.

Essentially, this concept identifies the contemporary phenomena where networks, be they the larger internet or local, have infiltrated the modern home. Effectively, connecting every computer, screen, speaker and media intermediary in your house to a larger network. If you’ve read my cribs post then you’ll know your way around my personal network and know that I’m a pretty big fan of the networked home. How though does my father feel about this? In keeping with the task of the week, I’ve returned to the subject of the television interview to query how the networked home is “changing television space or other practices in [the] household”.

My Fathers first response, after hearing an explanation of the networked home:

“Ooo, you should reference that episode of The Simpsons where the house is HAL and it tries to kill Homer. Seems appropriate.”

Dads and their suggestions. Pfft. Moving on.

I suppose that my home isn’t really networked at all. I mean, I don’t have the internet here anymore, just the 4G on my phone and I use that on my tablet… I guess the only way it’s really changed the ‘media dynamic’ of my living room is by letting me use my tablet while I’m watching the TV. I’ll do that, check out tv guides or read news in adds, maybe during boring bits of shows… I still get pretty much all of my viewing from TV broadcasts though. Sorry, this probably isn’t the answer you were hoping for.”

This is about all I can get out of my father relevant to the topic. The rest of the conversation was either me explaining what the task was or him calling me a nerd. Bloody Dad.

I got what I needed though, specifically with his mention of using multiple screens at the same time. More than anything, this has been the greatest influence the networked home has had on modern home media consumption. Specifically in relation to the television, the networking of the home has allowed multiple screens to permeate the home. Individuals now have the ability to split their attention between multiple screens displaying completely different data streams. As much as my father would claim that his home isn’t, as long as their are devices receiving data from larger networks then his home is networked.

This leads us in turn to the notion outlined in this weeks TED talk. The idea that, through larger networks, even when we are seemingly alone, we are never disconnected from other individuals.

Tuckle explains, among a great deal, the concept of being alone surrounded by other people if we choose to devote attention to our screens. In the same speech, though, she explains the notion of constant connection through larger networks and the appeal these have. In her worlds, “We’re lonely… and so from social networks to sociable robots, we’re designing technologies that will give us the illusion of companionship without the demands of friendship.”

In that same talk though, Turkle outlines that through this constant interconnectedness, we as humans are seeking, and indeed achieving, perpetual company – albeit, as she claims, cyber and shallow.

If we are to take the things that we learn in class this week, when we start with my father he would at first appear to be alone in an un-networked house. Applying the principles of the week though, specifically those outlines by Turkle, we can gather that he is neither of those things. He, just as much as anyone, is patched in and, in the greatest effect of the networked home, he is not alone.

Oooo, that sounds like a horror move tag line. A really long, convoluted one, sure, but a spooky tagline none the less.


Turkle, S 2012, “Sherry Turkle: Connected, but alone?”, Video, February 2012, TED, viewed 17/8/16 http://www.ted.com/talks/sherry_turkle_alone_together

Week 1: BCM240 Cribs

I thought I’d start of my exploration of the interaction between media, audience and place with a little examination of a very basic, very simple space. One I know pretty well and feel comfortable examining – home.

I consume a lot of different media. No, really, a lot. My home reflects that. The first thing you see moving into the living room is a television, lumped together with a router and a stack of DVD box sets. Countless kilobytes of data transmitted from all over the world, the product of hundreds of years of scientific advancement and communication engineering, enters my domain through an embarrassing mess of cables carelessly shoved behind a TV unit. There’s a laptop on the coffee table, wireless speakers connected to both it and the TV scattered about to make it easier to take viewing to the kitchen. I couldn’t imagine making dinner without half listening to ABCnews24. Hard drives of various sizes hang out of every port available, especially the tiny old school laptop patched into the TV.

Now, you might imagine that my living room media is chaotic, but let me assure you, it’s much, much worse than you could ever imagine. Following a blue Ethernet cable from the router leads you to my room and my desktop PC. I prefer cable over wireless for internet on my main PC. Fight me. A bed, a desk and a bookcase dominate one wall, all either pushed uncomfortably close together or straight up assembled on top of each other. Two huge monitors (I swear I’m not compensating for anything) sit abreast, HDMI cables connecting them both to my main meme machine. That’s where I’m typing this now, with 10 different tabs open in chrome. Once I’ve finished this, I’ll swing one of my monitor towards my bed and retire there to consume a balanced meal of news, memes and New Girl repeats. It’s worth mentioning that even though I might be able to see one or two different screens anywhere in my house, my phone is never out of reach.

The point I’m making is that if digital addiction were a medical condition my doctor would probably recommend euthanasia.

Now how does this relate to Media, Audience and Place? Well, strap on your hats because I’m going to get all philosophical up in this.

One of the key concepts we’ve had from this week is the implication that space is a dynamic, complex medium that effects and is effected by human interactions. As human geographer Doreen Massey puts it in this Social Science Bites podcast (2015),

“…space concerns our relations with each other and in fact social space, I would say, is a product of our relations with each other, our connections with each other. “

As Massey explores this concept more, the tangible space becomes an intangible medium of human interaction, an impossibly complex environments of chaotically influential factors all influencing each other in a myriad of detectable and undetectable ways.

With the integration of the internet and the media saturation of our everyday lives, the interaction between media, place and audience has exploded and influences a far greater domain then every before. So much is this affect that almost every sanctum, every private residence has become a space far more influenced by media and wider human interaction than every before.

Say, for example, the home of a nerd that like TV and computers a bit too much. What would once have been (though never truly isolated) a more remote a space, moderately disconnected from the torrent of human activity that is the ‘outside’, has become an effectively public media place. The ‘space’ that Massey describes has been networked, patched and sewn into our every day lives more than ever before.

My home, with its wires and screens epitomizes the evolution of personal space. Though I can still mediate the flow of information, say turning off TV or computer, what was once moderately protected from Masseys space has become a hub for it, a place for me to gorge myself on it.

Of course, with my thriving meme addiction, you’ll never hear me complain about that.


Warburton, N 2013, Doreen Massey on Space, Audio, February 1, 2013, Social Science Bites, viewed 3/08/2016